Gender diversity continues to be a hot topic: The hiring
and firing of female CEOs, milestones in the number of
women in corporate boardrooms and C-suites, and new
initiatives aimed at promoting more women into leadership are
regularly covered in the news.
In the past year, asset managers BlackRock and State Street
Global Advisors made news in corporate governance circles when
they announced that they voted against directors of boards where
there was a lack of gender diversity. Companies as different as
Accenture and BHP Billiton pledged to achieve a gender-balanced
workforce by 2025. And, following models such as the 30% Club
in the U.K. and Australia’s Male Champions of Change, a diverse
group of U.S. business leaders announced the Paradigm for Parity
coalition, an organization committed to achieving gender parity
across all levels of corporate leadership and providing a roadmap
for increasing the number of women in leadership positions.
Study after study finds greater numbers of women “disappearing”
at each successive level of most organizations.
In announcing these kinds of initiatives, organizations
point to the value of gender diversity in improving productivity
and financial performance. McKinsey found that
companies in the top quartile for gender diversity were 15
percent more likely to have financial returns above their
respective national industry medians.1 BlackRock said
diverse boards “make better decisions” in explaining its
decision to push boards on gender diversity. When
announcing its workforce parity initiative, BHP Billiton
said operations with a more diverse workforce had lower
injury rates and better engagement, adhered more closely
to work plans and were more likely to meet production
targets. Meanwhile, research from MIT Sloan School of
Management found that teams with more women perform
better and have more collective intelligence.2
And, yet, in spite of these initiatives and the fact that it
has been decades since women began entering the workforce
in large numbers in many countries, women’s
progress in leadership is still mixed.
At the corporate board of directors level, Norway leads
the pack in female representation; 45 percent of directors
of companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange are
women. While the push to increase the number of
women on boards there was initiated by government fiat,
it appears to have created a critical mass that became
self-sustaining, given that the current percentage is
higher than that required by law. The story is different
elsewhere. Among more than 20 countries in Asia,
Europe , Latin America and North America for which
Spencer Stuart tracks the composition and other governance
trends of major companies, female representation
on corporate boards exceeds 30 percent in only five of
Women aren’t progressing much faster on leadership
teams. A Grant Thornton survey3 of 5,500 businesses
in 36 economies found that women hold 25 percent
of senior business roles globally. This represents an
increase of one percentage point from 2016 and only
six percentage points over the 13 years of the study.
Furthermore, the percentage of businesses globally
with no women in senior management rose from
33 percent in 2016 to 34 percent in 2017. The survey
found few women in the most senior corporate roles;
only 12 percent of CEOs and 19 percent of CFOs are
women. While 23 percent of HR directors are female,
women serve in less than 10 percent of the global COO,
CMO, corporate controller and sales director roles.
Study after study finds greater numbers of women
“disappearing” at each successive level of most organizations.
A LeanIn.org and McKinsey & Company4 study
of 132 companies in the U.S. illustrated this phenomenon.
For every 100 women promoted to manager, 130
men are promoted. By the time women reach the SVP
level, they hold just 20 percent of line roles, which are
most likely to lead to the C-suite.
In our work, we see a range of postures on promoting
female leadership, with some companies not prioritizing
it at all and others establishing robust programs addressing
gender parity at every career stage, with the goal of
moving more women into senior roles. Based on our
work and conversations with leaders from companies
that are active in promoting diversity, the most effective
approaches do the following.
Improving the odds: How to increase the number of
women in the candidate pool
When looking outside for talent — whether working with a search firm or overseeing the search
directly — companies should strive for a process that produces a diverse slate and doesn’t
unintentionally exclude women. A few specific recommendations:
- Use gender-neutral language in scope, job description and presentation materials.
- Include women in client and search teams.
- Embrace a wider and deeper universe of target companies and prospects.
- Drive agreement on a common vernacular about what the best talent looks like — which means
the capabilities needed for success (versus non-relevant but familiar markers).
- Work to have multiple female options on candidate slates.
- Be prepared for a longer search and to address needs such as the relocation of spouses or childcare.
Signal the importance of gender diversity from the top
Evidence shows that increasing diversity requires clear and consistent support from the
CEO and senior management, and male leaders generally.
“It is so important to set the tone from the top,” said Ellyn Shook, chief leadership &
human resources officer for Accenture. CEO Pierre Nanterme is one of three sponsors of
the firm’s Women’s Executive Leadership program, which helps prepare women for P&L
roles and ensures they have sponsors to support their career advancement. “Pierre is an
outspoken advocate for diversity. Our board promotes diversity; at every board meeting,
we report on our progress on making the company more diverse,” said Shook. “We don’t
do this just because it is the right thing to do. It is also because we know that our diversity
makes us smarter and more innovative as an organization, and bringing innovative
solutions to our clients is the very essence of what we do. We cannot effectively execute
our strategy without having diversity.”
“I don’t think anything happens by accident.
You have to have an intent to change ...”
Julia Steyn, vice president of urban mobility programs and Maven at General Motors
Corporation, recalls GM CEO Mary Barra bringing together the senior women in the
company and challenging them to think about how to encourage women to develop
women behind them. “I don’t think anything happens by accident. You have to have an
intent to change, and this senior leadership team and the leadership team before have
had the intention to move the needle on diversity and the behaviors of the company,”
said Steyn. “Mary is very proactive about it, not only from the top-down, but she
engages everybody in the company for this change, and that’s really important.”
What women can learn from men’s networking habits
In our experience, men often behave differently in some important ways that help themselves — and
other men — advance their careers. To position themselves for more senior posts, women may
benefit from taking a few pages from their playbook:
Don’t wait until you’re "ready." Women are
more likely to think they must have all the
qualifications to be considered for a role,
but no candidate checks every box. If you’re
interested in the role and meet 70 percent
of the requirements, go for it.
Take a chance. It’s not unusual for a woman
to ask, “How do I know if I’ll like it?” More
openness to change — and, in particular, the
willingness to pursue P&L experience — can
help you take steps vital to your career growth.
Negotiate for yourself. Women may be great at
negotiating for their company or on behalf of
someone else, but not always for themselves.
Identify your top priorities and don’t hold back
in communicating them.
Talk to us even when you’re not looking for
a job. Men are much more likely to answer
and return our calls. Women often assume
they should only speak with a recruiter when
they are actively looking for a new role. By
cultivating relationships with recruiters, you
can learn about avenues of advancement that
may not be on your radar.
Promote yourself and other women. Even if
they have no interest in a role, men will often
tell us, “I’m not looking, but here are the
names of five of my friends.” And these friends
typically are other men. Women need to be
more vocal about their career aspirations so
they are top of mind when new opportunities
arise. In addition, develop and mentor up-andcoming
women and be willing to suggest
qualified women you know for leadership roles.
Expand your network. Participate in
formal programs and organizations aimed
at improving gender diversity. Joining a
nonprofit board can also widen your circle
Don’t overlook informal support
mechanisms. Building a personal cabinet of
advisers can be valuable in helping you
navigate your career or re-engage after an
absence from the industry. In a similar vein,
don’t be afraid to ask for help, additional
resources or advice.
Remove unconscious bias in assessment
Women can find themselves at a disadvantage in hiring or promotions when subjective
measures such as “gravitas” are used to evaluate candidates for senior roles — like the
5’2” female executive being compared to the 6’-plus male candidate on their “presence.”
Biases need not be active and conscious to have a negative effect in leadership populations.
Small — and unconscious — biases in assessment can add up, leaving fewer women in the
running at each successive phase of a search or succession process, and make it less likely
that a woman will be selected for key roles. Consider a study featured in Harvard Business
Review that found that when there was only one woman in a pool of four finalist candidates,
her odds of being hired were statistically zero. Adding just one more woman to the candidate
pool significantly increased the chances that a woman would be hired, in effect by
creating a new status quo.5 The study’s authors theorized that having only one woman in a
pool of finalists highlights how different she is from the norm, potentially making the
woman feel like a riskier choice for decision makers. Furthermore, when that minor bias
occurs at every level of promotion, the differences at the top become clearer. Even a relatively
minor 10 percent bias (55-45 percent) will create a 3-to-2 bias after merely two rounds
of selection, and nearly 2-to-1 after a third.
Women can find themselves at a disadvantage in hiring
or promotions when subjective measures such as
“gravitas” are used to evaluate candidates for senior
roles — like the 5’2” female executive being compared to
the 6’-plus male candidate on their “presence.”
To remove the biases that disadvantage women, organizations should use a structured
assessment approach that focuses on how well executives align with the specific capabilities,
leadership style and expertise required for success in the role. This starts with a determination
of the context in which the executive will operate and the objectives for the role. From there,
it is possible to define the specific capabilities that will be important for success and assess
candidates against those criteria. An assessment approach that incorporates several
rigorous, objective methods will provide multiple perspectives on executives and
minimize opportunities for bias.
The Spencer Stuart assessment approach incorporates methods that are proven to be among
the least biased approaches to assessment, including assessments of capabilities and Executive
Intelligence®. By scoring executives on a core set of six leadership capabilities — such as driving
results or strategic thinking — we can compare individuals to one another and to the requirements
of the role. And, in fact, when we examine the scores by gender on these leadership
capabilities, we find virtually identical results between men and women. Similarly, men and
women scored the same on Executive Intelligence, which is core to our measurement of executive
potential. In short, there is no reason for there to be fewer women in senior leadership roles
based on Executive Intelligence or capabilities.
Use data, not assumptions, to evaluate culture fit
Too often, when people think about how an individual fits with a team or organizational
culture, they think in terms of similarities in backgrounds or interests — someone they
recognize based on their own experience. When interviewing internal or external candidates
for leadership roles, then, they may ask questions meant to find personal connections — does
the candidate play golf or have mutual friends, for example — as a way to get a feel for how
individuals will fit in with the group.
But “sameness” is not the same as culture fit, and using it as a proxy for culture fit can
put women at a disadvantage over time.
When interviewing internal or external candidates for
leadership roles, then, they may ask questions meant to
find personal connections... But “sameness” is not the
same as culture fit, and using it as a proxy for culture fit
can put women at a disadvantage over time.
To avoid this problem, organizations should have a thoughtful and data-driven understanding
of their corporate culture and what it means to the performance of the business, as well
as the tools to evaluate how candidates for leadership roles fit with the culture the company
has or is building.
We use a framework that evaluates organizational culture and individuals’ personal style on
two dimensions — how they respond to change and how people work with one another.
This framework, which includes eight distinct cultural styles, can be used to evaluate organizational
culture and understand how an individual executive is likely to align with — and
shape — that culture. With such tools, organizations can look at the real drivers of culture
fit, such as whether the person is more likely to thrive in a more stable or more flexible environment,
or whether the person prefers to collaborate with others or work independently.
Provide support for women in leadership roles
Making progress on gender equality requires not just that women be placed in senior roles, but
also that they are successful in them. Especially for organizations hiring women from outside the
company — and, sometimes, from outside the industry — supporting their integration through
focused onboarding plans is essential. Newly hired female leaders should be encouraged to tap
into influence networks and be provided with insight about the culture and how to navigate it.
Organizations can set women up for success once they are hired by identifying mentors or peer
mentors who can answer questions and help them navigate company- or industry-specific issues.
Women also should be encouraged to build an intra-company network and get involved in the
broader community to ensure they gain a foothold.
“Our CEO said, ‘When you come, I’m going to make sure you’re
successful.’ That’s pretty powerful coming from a CEO.”
At Lear, all of the candidate slates for the most senior roles must include at least two
women and/or minorities. When Lear hired six new vice presidents from the outside last
year — half women — the company adopted a high-touch process for supporting new hires
in their transition, said Jeneanne Hanley, vice president of Global Surface Materials for Lear
Corp. and chair of AutomotiveNEXT, an industry group committed to advancing the careers
of women in automotive. The organization’s commitment to the success of women hired
from the outside started with the CEO, Matt Simoncini.
“Our CEO said, ‘When you come, I’m going to make sure you’re successful.’ That’s pretty
powerful coming from a CEO. When they got here, they they were supported from the very
beginning,” said Hanley. “They were hired because they’re talented, and it’s a reflection on the
rest of the company if we can’t take on new talent and help them be successful. So it’s a really
different take on it.”
Make work/life flexibility available for everyone, not just women
Ironically, good-intentioned initiatives meant to provide women more work/life balance and
flexibility can hurt women in the long run, when they have the effect of placing them outside
the “norm.” A better approach is to think about creating a workplace that is more flexible
about how and where work is performed — for everybody. Accenture, for instance, made an
“in-town” program for new parents mandatory for both women and men so that women
would not be perceived as being less career-oriented by taking advantage of it.
Adopting a more flexible mindset about how work gets done is likely to become more important
for employers in the future, as younger generations of workers expect more freedom to balance
their professional and personal priorities. Surveys of millennials have found that they are more
likely to quit jobs because of a lack of flexibility or benefits such as paid parental leave.
To truly transform the composition of a company’s workforce and leadership, organizations
have to be willing to disrupt the status quo. Accenture, for example, changed its approach to
promoting managing directors after noticing that that it was promoting women at a slower
rate than men. “At the time, we were promoting 21 percent women. The changes got us to
30 percent in two years, now we’re closer to 50/50. This was key to keeping women moving
up, to make sure we had a pipeline of women moving up into senior roles and didn’t lose
them at the first major promotion point,” said Shook. “People were supportive because we
showed them the data, and we had our very public aspirations to point to.” The firm has taken
other steps as well, such as hiring talented women from the outside even when there isn’t
an obvious opening, and assigning men and women in equal numbers to the CEO Circle, a
group of “up-and-coming” managing directors who advise the CEO, to ensure the company’s
decisions reflect both male and female points of view.
“You can’t just work harder. You really need to disrupt, take a hard look in the mirror,” said Shook.
Holding the organization and individual leaders accountable for gender targets is another
important tool for change. Tactics include publicly sharing diversity statistics and goals,
measuring female recruitment and retention efforts, and requiring leaders to develop diverse
teams and successors.
“When you have a diversity initiative, what you’re doing is challenging the leadership team to pick
a woman or to pick another diverse candidate and sponsor them. You’re saying in effect, ‘Which
woman are you going to sponsor?’” said Hanley. “It’s not just about picking a diverse individual
because, ultimately, you are responsible for building and developing a high-performing team. You
need to get results, so you have to be finding diversity and talent and lock it in to power the team.
I feel very lucky that a few men during my career saw something in me. And I will tell you, I felt
very responsible to deliver on the chance that they gave me.”
Sponsors should encourage the women they mentor to seek out jobs with P&L responsibility,
and women should recognize that they may need to push themselves out of their comfort zone
and be aggressive about going after P&L experience, a critical stepping stone for C-suite or
board opportunities. Building relationships and networking also is critical. “Women sometimes
think putting their heads down and just being really, really good, and doing a better job than the
next person is all they need to do,” said Hanley. “Especially in the upper echelons, relationships
and networking mean so much. At senior levels, it’s about senior-level executives making a call
about the handful of people that they trust to run the company.”
“It’s not just about picking a diverse individual because, ultimately, you
are responsible for building and developing a high-performing team.
You need to get results, so you have to be finding diversity and talent
and lock it in to power the team.”
Despite ongoing attention to the issue of gender disparity in
leadership, progress for women remains mixed. With greater
numbers of women “disappearing” at successively higher levels
of many organizations, companies that want to increase the number
of women in leadership roles need strong advocacy from the CEO, an
assessment approach that minimizes bias and assumptions about
culture fit, support for women hired from the outside and a willingness
to take bold actions.
“Diversity Matters” McKinsey & Co., February 2015.
Anita Woolley, Thomas W. Malone and Christopher F. Chabris. “Why Some Teams Are Smarter than Others.” New York Times, January 18, 2015.
Women in business: New Perspectives on Risk and Reward. Grant Thornton. March 2017.
Women in the Workplace 2016. LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company. September 2016.
Stefanie K. Johnson, David R. Hekman and Elsa T. Chan. “If There’s Only One Woman in Your Candidate Pool, There’s Statistically No Chance She’ll Be Hired.” Harvard Business Review, April 26, 2016.